| Term / Abbreviation
|| Meaning / Explanation
|| An alarm limit is a limit in the domain of the monitoring. An alarm is released, as
soon as a monitoring function crossed an alarm limit. An alarm marks the
produced part as a bad part, because it does not comply with the required quality
characteristics (which are defined by the monitoring limits). Such a part is
automatically sorted out. (see "Separation of bad parts")
| Analog signal
|| An analog signal is, within the context of the signal theory, a form of a signal with
continuous and interruption-free course.
| Automatic switchover to holding
| The automatic switchover to holding pressure is based on the melt front detection
and generates highest stability of injection molding processes, because constant
fluctuations of the volumetric filling of the molded parts, dependent from viscosity
fluctuations, are recognized and compensated. It is a cavity related, volumetric
switchover. Automatic switchover to holding pressure is carried out on the basis of
a previously defined signal. More details see "Switchover to holding pressure".
The automatic switchover method is patent protected.
| Back pressure
(Screw back pressure)
| The screw back pressure is the pressure against the screw in which it has to work
during plasticizing. The material pressure in the cylinder is increased by the back
pressure. This is a precondition for a good homogenization and good
reproducibility of dispensing. Basically bad flowing materials need a higher pack
pressure than easy flowing materials.
|| Modular hardware of the PRIAMUS® FILLCONTROL platform. It provides the
amplifier modules type 5080, type 5070, the Core with display type 8280 as well
as the I/O modules Master type 8980 and Expander type 8981, Bus Interface type
8982 and the Voltage Input Module type 8983.
| BlueLine Amplifier
|| Type 5080. Measuring amplifier in the variants for cavity pressure or cavity
temperature, each of which provides either 4 or 16 channels. It is part of the
universal PRIAMUS® BlueLine data acquisition system for intelligent process
monitoring and control for the injection molding process. The modularity of the
5080 amplifiers enables you to configure your system individually according to
| Type 5070 has 2 measuring channels for pressure as well as for temperatures
| BlueLine Bus Interface
|| Type 8982. Coupling module between the Top Hat Rail Set and the Hybrid Bus
cable for BlueLine devices. The Bus Interface is used for connecting an I/O
module chain (consisting of an I/O Master and one or several I/O Expanders) to
the Hybrid Bus cable type 1280.
| BlueLine Core
|| Powerful control device for monitoring, open- and closed-loop-control of the
injection molding process according to state-of-the-art. Type 8280 with Touch
Screen and integrated FILLCONTROL software.
| BlueLine Hybrid Bus Cable
|| Type 1280. Connecting cable for the connection of all BlueLine devices (amplifiers,
Core and I/O modules).
| BlueLine I/O Expander
|| Type 8981. Expander module for digital switching signals (inputs / outputs). It
transmits control signals from the injection molding machine to the BlueLine
system („Input“) and receives such signals from this system („Output“). The first
I/O Expander is directly connected to the I/O Master (via Top Hat Rail Set). You
can add additional I/O Expander modules via plug and play via Top Hat Rail Set.
| BlueLine I/O Master
|| Type 8980. Base module for digital switching signals (inputs / outputs). It
transmits control signals from the injection molding machine to the BlueLine
system („Input“) and receives such signals from this system („Output“).
Depending on your needs, you can connect one or several BlueLine I/O
Expanders or Bus Interfaces to the I/O Master.
| BlueLine Voltage Input Module
|| Type 8983. BlueLine Voltage Input Module for the acquisition of 8 analog voltage
signals (e.g. 24 V machine signals).
| Capability (process capability)
|| Process capability defines how good a process, respectively, how the results
(output) match with the (customer) quality requirement. The shown process
capability, respectively, process control charts are used as process
documentation. They help the injection molder to draw up his production based on
key figures from the cavity. By using this, process fluctuations, thermal balance,
shutdowns etc. can be visualized easily and understandably.
| Cavity Pressure Sensor
|| PRIAMUS® Cavity Pressure Sensors are used for industrial monitoring and
controlling of injection molding processes.
For decades sensors of this kind and dimension have been used to determine,
even during production, the physical properties of a molded part and to adapt
them as necessary. The piezoelectric measuring technology has become
established for this application over the years, because the sensor itself is
especially suitable for this. On account of the partial very fast injection processes,
requirements are developed which can only be fulfilled by very compact and stiff
sensor designs. PRIAMUS® reference in particular to the internal and patented
protected developments PRIASAFE® and PRIASED®.
| Cavity temperature
|| The cavity temperature is (during continuous production) above the mold
temperature. The cavity temperature can be measured by, in the cavity (wall)
mounted, sensors. The temperature varies because of heating (injection phase)
and cooling (back pressure and cooling phase).
| Cavity Temperature Sensor
|| The term cavity mold sensing was created with the founding of PRIAMUS SYSTEM
PRIAMUS® Cavity Temperature sensors have been especially designed to be
used in the mold cavity. In this context the reaction time of the sensors play a
vital role. Target is to detect the melt front practically in real time. Therefore, the
sensor acts as a kind of light barrier in the mold. Furthermore, in this way the
temperature profiles of each cavity or special areas of cavities can be analyzed.
Therefore, the sensors serve the monitoring and controlling of injection molding
|| Input connection and / or output connection for a measured variable on the
electric device, e.g. the charge signal of a sensor.
| Coldrunner mold
|| With coldrunner molds the melt hardens in the sprue and is separated during or
after the demolding of the component.
| Communication interface
|| Communication interfaces are used to read and write actual and set values based
on a communication protocol (such as Euromap, SPI or manufacturer specific
protocols). This involves for instance injection speed profiles, holding pressure
profiles or hotrunner nozzle temperatures. In principle all parameters defined in
the protocol may be sent and received.
Physically these data are being transmitted for instance to the hotrunner controller
or to the host computer of the machine via interfaces such as e. g. RS-232,
RS-485 or Ethernet.
| Compact Sensor
|| PRIAMUS® Compact Sensors
Many molded parts are not made in the mold platen itself but with the help of
mold inserts. This makes it easier to manufacture and maintain the cavities. The
use of cavity pressure sensors and cavity temperature sensors is in this case,
often limited because of the available space. In addition the handling of cables
with fixed installed sensors is work intensive during mounting and dismounting of
the mold inserts. As a solution PRIAMUS® developed Compact Sensors for the
pressure and temperature measurement in injection molds. Instead of connecting
the sensors by a connecting cable with the coupling in the mold insert, the
Compact Sensor is tightly connected via a distance sleeve with the coupling. In
this way an extremely compact and very easy manageable solution is generated
which is available in different dimensions depending on the application. The length
of the Compact Sensors is variable and must be specified with the order.
| Compression control
|| Compression control is a component of FILLCONTROL Control P.
The mechanical strength of a molded part depends on the compression of the melt
during manufacturing. Depending on the application and the geometry of the
molded part, too high compression as well as too low compression may lead to
undesired results. In order to reproduce the compression of a molded part, the
holding pressure profile of the machine must be adapted. For reproducing this
determined and optimized compression initially one single parameter is being
optimized. This parameter is adapted by the holding pressure profile of the
molding machine until the optimized compression in the cavity finally is achieved.
| Compression injection molding
|| The injection-compression is an injection molding process for the production of
high precision or big components of plastic. Thereby the plastic melt is injected in
the practically unpressured, not completely closed, mold.The mold is only
completely closed during the solidification process. The thereby corresponing,
steadily closing pressure guarantees the final molding of the component. By the
help of the automatically detected melt front, the stamping process is initiated in
relation to the volumetrical filling.
|| See BlueLine Core
| Core pull (technology)
|| The core pull is a component of the injection molding machine. The core pull is a
plunger (different designs) which can be retracted and extended in the cavity to
enable a corresponding volume during the injection or to demould specific sectors.
The controlling of core pulls is triggered by melt front detection. The core is
always controlled at the same volumetrically full degree and not traditional via
time, with the consequence of different melt positions.
| Core pull control
|| The core pull control is a component of the injection molding machine to control
the core pulls.
| Digital signal
|| A digital signal is a map of an analog signal in time-discrete and value-discrete
| Ejector pin
|| The ejector pin is a component of the mold and serves the demolding of the
molded parts. Note: There are also other demolding units such as stripper plates.
| Event log
|| FILLCONTROL Event Log is displaying all messages generated by the system.
Thereby the user is being continuously informed about the state of the system, in
order to control and adapt those in an optimal way.
|| FILLCONTROL is the central data acquisition, evaluation and control software for
all PRIAMUS® applications. The FILLCONTROL software provides the user
interface for PRIAMUS® measuring devices .
| FILLCONTROL FreeViewer
|| Type 7080-FreeViewer. Free of charge software module for the display and
analysis of FILLCONTROL measuring data.
| FILLCONTROL Measure
|| Type 7080-Measure. Free of charge software module for simple data acquisition
and process documentation with BlueLine amplifiers.
| FILLCONTROL Monitor
|| Type 7080-Monitor. Software module for individual monitoring and control of the
injection molding process to be used together with the BlueLine Core type 8280.
| FILLCONTROL Switch
|| Type 7080-Switch. Software module for the controlling of injection molding
processes as well as special switching and monitoring processes, for example in
rotary table applications or in sequential injection molding.
| FILLCONTROL Control H
|| Type 7080-Control H. Software module for the balancing and controlling of
hotrunner molds, including BlueLine Core type 8280 and communicating cable.
| FILLCONTROL Control P
|| Type 7080-Control P. Software module for the controlling of shear stress, shear
rate, compression and shrinkage via host computer interface of the injection
molding machine, including BlueLine Core type 8280 and communicating cable.
| FILLCONTROL Control V
|| Type 7080-Control V. Software module for the balancing and controlling of the
melt flow especially of cold runner molds (LSR). Thereby the opening times of the
valve gate nozzles are automatically delayed, including BlueLine Core type 8280.
| Fill time control
|| FILLCONTROL Control H can be operated in fill time control mode.
On this control operation mode the melt flow is controlled on a reference state.
This issue of time is fixed by the set fill time [period] in [s] at the beginning of
each cycle. This fill time control can be carried out by nozzle temperatures as well
as by the control of valve gate nozzles.
| Flow path
|| The flow path is the distance the melt needs to pass until the cavity is filled.
| Flowpath-wall section ratio
|| Relation between longest flow path of the mold, measured from the gate to the
end of the flow path, divided by average wall thickness on this distance.
| Force shunt
|| An improper installation of a pressure sensor (contact of measuring element with
wall of the hole) produces a force shunt. This force shunt effects a loss of
sensitivity of the sensor. The measurement will be distorted. Such an error may
be up to 30 %. The smaller a sensor, the larger the influence. Each pressure
measurement without PRIASAFE® technology is therefore dependent on the
installed conditions of the sensor. For that reason, the measurement without
PRIASAFE® technology is not necessarily reproducible and trustworthy.
| Hardware interface
|| Hardware interfaces are designed to transmit status information at certain events
(e. g. "valve gate open", "automatic switchover to holding pressure" or "separate
reject part"). These events may be transmitted from the PRIAMUS system to a
machine, a robot or a peripheral device, as well as in the opposite direction.
Physically and typically this involves a voltage level (e. g. 0 V / 24 V) which
represents the logic status "0" and "1". In the future this will also be possible fully
digital via a real time bus.
| Holding pressure
|| After injection the machine switches to holding pressure. The holding pressure and
the holding pressure time should compensate the volume contraction during the
solidification of the melt as much as possible.
| Holding pressure level
|| Many machines offer up to ten holding pressure levels. In the case of thin-walled
components, for example, a short high holding pressure level is followed by a
lower holding pressure to avoid too high tensions near the gate.
| Host computer interface
|| The interface of the host computer serves the communication with the single
components of a machine and is needed for PRIAMUS® controlling with
FILLCONTROL Control H / Control P.
| Hotrunner balancing
|| FILLCONTROL Control H can be operated in hotrunner balancing mode.
On this control operation mode for multi cavity molds all cavities should be filled
simultaneously, i.e. different volumetrically degrees of filling in the cavities are
balanced until a balanced state predominates. This module can be used for pure
hotrunner manifold applications as well as for sub-contributor with hot-to-cold
| Hotrunner control
|| By the use of hotrunner control the melt flow of hotrunner molds are controlled.
| Hotrunner control device
|| The hotrunner control device controls the temperature of hotrunner manifold and
hotrunner nozzles and influences therefore the melt flow in hotrunner molds.
| Hotrunner manifold
|| The hotrunner manifold is a component of the hotrunner gating system. The
hotrunner manifold serves the distribution of the melt to the single cavities.
| Hotrunner mold
|| See Hotrunner system
| Hotrunner nozzle
|| The hot runner nozzle forms the transition between heated and unheated zone in
a mold of an injection molding machine. The hotrunner ends in the tip of the
hotrunner nozzle. Each nozzle features differences in sensitivities for heating and
| Hotrunner system
|| The hotrunner / hotrunner system is a special design of the gating system in the
processing of plastics. The gating system is thermally isolated and higher
tempered in contrast to the remaining mold. Because of this, the plastic in the
sprue stays constantly flowable. No sprue stays at the component.
| Hybrid Bus Cable
|| See BlueLine Hybrid Bus Cable
| Indirect pressure measurement
|| The indirect pressure measurement is mainly used where no sensor for direct
measurement can be placed due to design reasons or where the witness of a
sensor mark is not acceptable. This measurement is affected by friction
(dependent on pin diameter) and may change over time due to deposits
| Individual separation of bad parts
|| Individual separation of bad parts assumes recognizing and differentiating of good
parts and bad parts. Not the entire shot is separated, only the cavities of the bad
parts. In this case the interface I/O Expander type 8981 is being installed at the
| Injection speed
|| Screw advance speed inside of the injection unit during the injection phase. The
injection rate is regarded as the control value to influence the share rate [1/sec]
of the molded part.
| Injection speed steps
|| Length sections during the injection with different screw rates. Usually, at least 2
injection speed steps are used. The second step will drive through briefly and at a
deeper injection speed to prevent overmolding with the switchover to holding
|| The integral shows the area under the corresponding measurement graph. The
integral can be used as a monitoring function and can be time limited. For
example, the integral of the pressure graph during the injection phase or the
integral of temperature graph during the cooling phase are used as monitoring
| Intervention (action limit)
|| An action limit is a limit in the domain of the monitoring. An action signal is
released, as soon as a monitoring function exceeds or drops below the action
limit. The produced part is still a good part. The tolerances of the action limits are
contained within the alarm limits. This function should be used to recognize a
drifting process on time, to react before the alarm limits are crossed.
| Liquid silicone rubber (LSR)
|| Liquid silicones are elastomers consisting of two components. The components are
mixed directly before injection.
| Machine barrel cylinder
|| The machine barrel is a central component of the injection molding machine. The
screw is moving inside the machine barrel cylinder. More detailed information see
| Machine control
|| The machine control assumes the monitoring and analysis of machine data. By
continuously monitoring and correcting the parameters the production process is
stabilised and a maximum production efficiency is achieved.
| Machine interface
|| The machine interface serves the communication and is an interface between
| Machine nozzle
|| The machine nozzle forms the end of the injection unit at the machine barrel. The
machine nozzle serves the transfer of the melt from the injection molding machine
to the mold.
|| FILLCONTROL monitoring criteria "Maximum value".
| Melt flow
|| The melt flow over a specific distance is defined by the share rate. The controlling
of the viscosity of plastic melt with FILLCONTROL bases on the calculating
relationship shear stress / shear rate. A too high viscosity can be reduced by
increasing of shear rate (or reducing shear stress). A too low viscosity can be
increased by reducing of shear rate (or increasing shear stress).
| Melt position
|| Position of the melt inside the cavity. PRIAMUS® is able to detect the melt
| Melt temperature
|| The melt temperature is general defined as the average temperature of melt
volume, in the collecting chamber between the nozzle and the tip of the screw,
which is provided for the next shot.
| Melt temperature sensor
|| A melt temperature sensor determines the melt temperature. See "Melt
|| FILLCONTROL monitoring criteria "Minimum value".
| Mold temperature
|| The mold temperature for each plasic material is indicated in a range and is a
compromise between cost-effective production and optimum characteristics of
| Online control
|| The controlling of a process is when an interaction takes place in which a principle
variable (dynamic) size is kept automatically constant or roughly constant.
Characteristics for the controlling of injection molding processes: The influence of
the controlling must be measured directly at the molded part. Only then it is
possible to speak from a closed control loop.
| Part dimension
|| Dimension of the component after the demolding and shrinking (1 to 3 days after
demolding according to the plastic type and wall thickness). On account of the
shrinking the part dimension is smaller than the dimension in the mold.
| Piezoelectric signal
|| A sensor with a piezoelectric measuring element yields an electrical charge during
mechanical deformation or under pressure. This electrical charge corresponds to
the piezoelectric signal. By the indication of the sensitivity of each single sensor
[pC/bar] the values of charge can be converted to pressure values and displayed
as a cavity pressure curve.
|| The PRIAFIT® mounting sleeve for cavity pressure and cavity temperature
sensors consists of a combination of mounting nut and distance sleeve and
combines the advantages of both methods. The thread for the mounting of the
sensor can easily be tapped near the borehole top and the length of the sleeve
must not be cut exact but only approximate. A simple but very efficient and
||PRIAMUS® procedure for safe mounting of cavity pressure sensors. These
sensors are protected by a casing and a force shunt (after calibration) is avoided.
Only this concept guarantees a reproducible measurement of pressure even after
||PRIAMUS® procedure for automatic sensor and sensitivity detection. Thereby the
sensitivity is identified and processed by a built-in hardware code inside the
| Process capability
|| See "Capability"
| Process control
|| The process control is an approach for the automatic optimization of production
| Process fluctuation
|| A process is always subject to process fluctuations. The lower the process
fluctuations are, the better the process is. By the monitoring and controlling
functions of FILLCONTROL, process fluctuations are timely recognized, analyzed
| Process monitoring
|| Process monitoring is a method of monitoring of production processes based on
| Quick Disconnect
|| Quick Disconnect makes installing and removing of the tool inserts simple, quick
and safe by the separation of the connection cable.
| Quick Disconnect Cable
|| The Quick Disconnect Cable is mounted in the mold platen and establishes the
connection between the Compact Sensor, or sensor with quick disconnect, to the
connecting cable or multi channel connecting box.
| Real-time control
|| In contrast to online control this control refers to an open control loop, this means
that no information is flowing back.
| Rotary table
|| There is a great variety of rotary table constructions. They are used for multi-
component injection molding or for injection molding parts with inserted
components. Mold halves, for example, are displaced by a rotary table and the
injection molding process is continued further on. Particularity of process
monitoring and process controlling: The measuring channels and monitoring
functions must be assigned to the corresponding rotary table position.
Furthermore good and bad part signals might need to be sent delayed by x cycles.
|| The screw is located inside the plasticizing unit and has the following functions:
absorbing granulate from hopper, conveying, compressing, melting, homogenizing
| Screw position
|| The screw position, as well as the injection rate and the injection pressure,
belongs to the controlled injection molding machine parameters.
| Screw stroke
||Screw stroke during various production phases.
| Separation of bad parts
|| Separation of bad parts assumes recognizing and differentiating of good parts and
bad parts. A good, respectively, bad part signal is transmitted above a
standardized interface to the machine, respectively, to the robot (to the part
separation). (see "Alarm")
| Sequential injection molding
||Sequential injection molding is a special kind of sequential valve gate closing. The
optimal filling of a component can be carried out with the valve gate control,
through individual opening of the valve gate nozzles in a graded sequence (based
on melt front detection). A sequence running of the melt front is thereby
generated from section to section.
| Shear rate control
|| Shear rate control with FILLCONTROL Control P.
The shear rate of a plastic melt depends on the geometry of the cavity and on the
adjusted injection speed of the molding machine. Basically two sensors are
required to determine shear rate by which the arrival of the melt front is
automatically detected at the sensor position. On principle two pressure sensors,
two temperature sensors or one of each (pressure or temperature) could be used.
The determined shear rate can be reproduced at any time on the same or on
another machine by varying and adapting the injection speed profile accordingly.
The flow conditions are therefore always the same
| Shear stress control
|| Shear stress control with FILLCONTROL Control P.
Shear stress is determined during injection and depends, first of all, on the fill
pressure during the filling stage. For this reason the beginning of the pressure rise
and the moment of pressure detection are automatically determined and
analyzed. In order to control the shear stress the melt temperatures must be
changed. This is done by changing the barrel temperature and, with hotrunner
molds, additionally changing the hotrunner temperatures. The shear stress is
often used when concerned about surface quality. Only via this value it is possible
to make a statement regarding the reproducibility of a surface property.
|| See "Parts dimension" and "Shrinkage control"
| Shrinkage control
|| Shrinkage control with FILLCONTROL Control P.
A molded part starts to shrink in the injection process when atmospheric pressure
is reached by cooling of the melt. If these parameters change during the process
also the shrinkage of the parts (parts dimension) will change. The shrinkage
control of the FILLCONTROL system determines the cavity temperature when
reaching atmospheric pressure (or a certain residual pressure) and controls
existing deviations automatically. The system controls the temperature controllers
preferably via main computer interface of the machine.
| Standard deviation
|| The standard deviation is a term of the statistics and probability calculation. The
standard devation is a measure of the dispersion of the values of random
variables around the expectation.
| Switchover to holding pressure
|| While switching from injection pressure to holding pressure the machine is
switching from the speed-controlled injection phase, in which the cavities are
filled, to the pressure-controlled holding pressure phase, in which the shrinkage of
the material is compensated. Ideally this switchover occurs exactly when the
cavity is nearly filled volumetrically.
| Temperature control unit
|| A temperature contol unit is a device (as a part of a production plant) that carries
out the tempering of a medium for the production process (mold).
|| A thermocouple converts warmth into electric energy (thermoelectricity). It is a
component made of two different metals connected with each other at one end. A
temperature difference generates an electric tension by the heat flow. PRIAMUS®
uses thermocouple Type N which offers certain advantages in contrast to
thermocouples Type J and Type K.
| Thermoplastic (Plastomere)
|| Thermoplastics (Plastomere) are plastics which can be deformed in a certain
temperature range (thermo-plastically). This process is reversible, i.e. it can be
repeated any number of times by cooling down and rewarming up to the fused
state, unless the so-called thermic decomposition takes place by excessive
heating and / or shear.
|| Thermosets are plastics which can no longer be molded after hardening.
Thermosets are hard, glass-like polymer materials that are linked in a rigid 3-D
structure by chemical primary valency bonds.
|| Traceability is a term of measurement in engineering and analytical chemistry and
describes a characteristic of measurement results. For traceable measured values
applies: Each measured result can be referenced to national or international
norms by a continuous line of comparative measurements with indicated
|| Validation is the conformity of the repeatability of a result from a described
approach under defined conditions. Machine parameters are used for the classical
injection molding validation. Nevertheless, PRIAMUS® uses the measuring data
from the cavities. Only then is it possible to speak about process validation. Only
if the process is repeatable, a constant part quality can be assumed.
| Valve gate
|| Machines valve gates are used where dropping of melt or stringing of mostly
low-viscosity materials should be prevented.
| Valve gate control
|| The valve gate control controls (for example by pressure) the opening and closing
of the valve gate(s). An automatic calculation of these switching processes (valve
gate control) was realized with FILLCONTROL Control V.
|| The viscosity of a melt is a measure of the inner flow resistance. The viscosity is
calculated from the quotient of the shear stress and shear rate and can be
measured, monitored and controlled by Cavity Pressure Sensors and Cavity
Temperature Sensors. Viscosity differences affect fluctuations in the process with
the result of quality differences in the production.
| Voltage signal
|| A voltage describes the difference of electric potentials (different electric load).
Injection machines deliver different status signals in the form of analog voltages.
These signals can be analyzed, compared with measured data from cavities and
monitored by help of FILLCONTROL.
| Volumetric filling
|| The volumetric filling is reached when the cavity is filled. Before reaching of the
volumetric filling (approx. 95 - 98 %) the switchover from injection pressure
(injection rate) to holding pressure is carried out.
|| A warning limit is a limit in the domain of the monitoring. A warning signal is
released, as soon as a supervision function crosses the warning limit. The
produced part is still a good part. The tolerance of the warning limits are
contained within the intervention limits. A warning signal can be seen as the first
sign of a drifting process.